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自考英语一基础语法重点辅导2

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发表于 2013-9-1 19:59:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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考试重点语法

虚拟语态、倒装句、主谓一致、介词、连词

时态、语态、情态动词、非谓语动词 ( 不定式、动名词、分词 )

并列句、复合句 ( 主从 , 宾从 , 表从 , 定从 , 状从 , 同位从 )

1.简单句和并列句

主谓 , 主谓状 I study hard.

情态动词 + 实意动词构成谓语 . I shall go.

主谓宾 , 主谓介宾 I study English.

I look at the blackboard.

主系表 I am a student. The leaves turn red.

主谓双宾 I give him a present.

主谓宾宾补 I let you do it.

I ask you to do it

定 状 语 A red book.

Work hard.

并 列 句 I worked and studied(x)

I worked and he studied.

2. 主从复合句

(1) 宾语从句

I study English. I think (that)… I think that she is a good student.

I made it clear that he objected to the plan.

I asked whether/if he was a good student.

I don't know whether it is raining.

I asked what he had studied. He gave me what I need.

You are wrong in that you took effect for cause.

(2) 主语从句

That the sun moves around the earth is the truth.( it is the truth that……)

Whether it is raining is not known.

It is not known——computers will one day have vision as good as human vision.

A.whether B. if C. that D. how

It goes without saying that we are not living in a traditional society.

Who will come to the meeting remains unknown.

翻译题 : In a sense, what he said amounts to threat.

(3) 表语从句

Your greatest fault is that you are careless.

The problem is what we should do to help him.

(4) 形容词补语从句

We feel proud that our team has won every match this year.

He wasn't sure whether he should stay or leave.

Are you certain who he is

(5) 同位语从句

(fact, news, idea, opinion, concern, hope, theory, decision, discovery, conclusion, report, order, question, problem, belief, truth, answer, statement, promise, possibility.)

The news that he intended to come gave us much pleasure.

(6) 状语从句

时间状语从句

When I studied, the bell rang.

She was going upstairs when suddenly the light went out.

He had no sooner died than / he had hardly died when the family arguments began.

地点状语从句

He live where he liked.

原因状语从句

He was late because he missed the bus.

Now that you mention it, I do remember.

I'm in a slightly awkward position, in that my secretary is on holiday at that moment.

目的状语从句

We have so arranged matters that one of us is always on duty.

Bring it closer so that I may see it better.

结果状语从句

He brought a big house so( that) he had more space to paint in.

He made such a good speech that he won warm applause.

翻译题 :The brothers looks so alike that it is difficult to tell them each other

条件状语从句

If I make a promise, I keep it.

I'll lend you the money , as/so long as you take my advice.

These messages will become rubbish unless some measures have been taken.

让步状语从句

Although/ though he was Spanish, he spent most of his life in Germany.

Whatever/ No matter what happens, you must be calm and quiet.

However/no matter how loudly you shout, you won't be heard.

方式状语从句

I have changed the plan as you suggested.

As if ( as though)

比较状语从句 ( 重点 )

She is as tall as Tom( is) I arrived as early as you (did)

Mary was older/more careful than Tom( was)

Mary works harder /more carefully than Tom( does)

Bill speaks French ——( badly) than he writes it.

The –( far)away we get from the earth, the thinner the air becomes. further 进

(8) 定语从句 在从句中成份 + 连词

She is a beautiful girl. I like the girl who is beautiful.( who 主语 )

This is the film that I see.

This is the boy who (whom)(——) you met yesterday. ( 主语 )

Tell me something about the man for whom I shall be working / (whom) I shall be working for.

I read the book whose cover is red.

You are still the same person as I knew ten years ago.

I never heard such stories as he told.

This is the day when ( on which ) I joined the league.

This is the house where( in which ) I live./ This is the house I live in.

非限定性定语从句 :

He met Mary, who invited him to dinner.

I gave the book to Tom, whom/ who I found after the meeting.

Her doctor, whose office was newly decorated, started to charge higher fee.

His latest play, which was well reviewed by the critics, has been a great success.

I called him by the wrong name, for which mistake I apologized.

Prof. Emery, about whom everyone is taking these days.

There are only four areas ____ very many diamonds have been found.

A.where B.when C.that D.which

Where 用在定语从句和状语从句的区别

I'll go to the place ( where I live)

I'll go wherever work conditions are difficult.

定语从句和同位语从句的区别

The news (that our team had won)was known to all.

This is the film that (I see)。

考题 : Such people – you describe are rare nowadays.

a. as b. that c. who d.which

Anyone ——( want) to understand the industry of the future will have to know about IT . [who want]

Who wants Many of us visited the industrial exhibition,——,to our disappointment, we saw very few high-tech products.

a. where b. which c. as d. that

3. 并列复合句

He said that he would give up smoking, but nobody believe it.

I never saw a busier person than she seemed to be; yet it was difficult to say what he she did.

时态的呼应

I thought the experiment was going on now.

She said this apparatus would be available next week.

Am/is/are/+ done. This room is cleaned every day.

Was/were +done This room was cleaned yesterday.

Will be+ done This room will be cleaned.

Am/is/are being done This room is being cleaned at the moment.

Was/were being done This room was being cleaned when I arrived.

Have/has been done My car has been repaired.

Had been done The room looks much better. It had been cleaned.

No sooner had I arrived at the theatre than the film began .

Hardly……… when

Some people think that the relations between people have deteriorated -( deteriorate) so much that understanding and friendship are almost impossible.

Nearly a week passed before the girl was able to explain what had happened (happen) to her.

非谓语动词

动词不定式

做主语 To see is to believe.

What to do next has not been decide

It is not easy to remember all these words.

表语 To know everything is to know nothing.

定语 This is a book to be written .

宾语 I want to study .

He found it impossible to keep silent any longer.

宾补 They warned me not to be late.

I let you do it

(make, have, see, watch, notice, look at, observe, smell, listen to, hear,perceive)

状语 Yesterday he came to see me.

独立成份 To be frank , she is not my girlfriend.

形容词补语 I am glad to hear the news.

不定式的逻辑主语 For a bridge to collapse like that is unbelievable.

不定式的 时态和语态 to do(be) , to be+p.p.

to have done, to have been done

动名词

主 , 表语 Seeing is believing

Tom's going there won't do any harm.

My hobby is collecting stamps.

定语 This is a swimming poor. ( a poor for swimming)

This is a hiding place ( a place for hiding )

宾语 I enjoy studying (mind, keep, appreciate, can't help, consider, postpone,suggest,admit etc.)

Do you mind my smoking here

介词 + 宾语

I used to doing. (confess to, look forward to, object to doing sth.)

be involve in, consist of, be fond of, etc.动名词的时态和语态基本形同分词的时态和语态

分词

状语 When I saw the film, I felt sad = Seeing the film, I felt sad.

Because it is Sunday today, we have no school.

It being Sunday, we have no school.转自环 球 网 校edu24ol.com

When the job was finished, we went home straight away.

The job finished, we went home straight away.

定语 The boy standing there is a classmate of mine.

=The boy who is standing there is a classmate of mine.

The used car. A broken cup the question involved.

表语 The film is exciting. All the windows are broken.

宾补 I found them watering flowers.( I found that they were watering flowers.

I found the flowers watered. ( I found the flowers watered)

分词的时态和语态 .( 形同动名词 )

doing (being) being done

having done having been done

______nothing to say, the boy shield way form the crowd.

A. Having B. Have C Had. D. Having being

What developed was a music readily taking ( take) on various forms.

Not having got (not get) enough hands, she had great difficulty in accomplishing the task.

非谓语动词答题要点

1. Anyone wanting (want) to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics.

2 . A Filipino maid was executed in Singapore after being convicted (convict)of murder.

3. As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals used ( use) in experiments may decrease.

Not have got (not, get)enough hands she had great difficulty in accomplishing the task .

It is a well-known fact that a person will move in a circle when he cannot use his eyes to control ( control) his direction.

As I'll be away for a year , I'd appreciate hearing (hear)from you now and then .

Object to , confess to , look forward to + doing.转自环 球 网 校edu24ol.com

介词 + doing.

If I had remembered —— the window, the thief would not have got in.

a. to close b. closing c. to have close d. having closed.

Begin, start, intend, continue to do, doing 的区别不大

The baby began crying. The baby began to cry.

Try to do. 努力去做 Try doing 尝试去做 .

I was very tired. I tired to keep my eyes open, but I couldn't.

I can't find anywhere to live.

______, they began to get down to business. A. The holidays being over B. The holidays are over C. The holidays were over D. The holidays had been over

V+ing 及从句 的固定用法

It's no use doing sth.

It's no use worrying about it. There's nothing you can do.

It's (not) worth doing sth.

Have difficulty doing sth.

Spend time (in) doing sth.

There is no doubt that.

强调句

强调主语 It is I that/who am to blame

2. 强调直接宾语 It was a glass that Mary broke.

3. 强调间接宾语 It was him that I gave the pen to.

4. 强调介词宾语 It is this room that I am living in.

5. 强调状语 1) 时间状语 It was last year that Tom graduated from high school.

2) 地点状语 It was under the bridge that we found him.

3) 原因状语 It was for his arrogance that I dislike him.

4) 目的状语 It was for pleasure that I read it.

不仅可以是陈述句 , 还可以是疑问句和感叹句 .

Was it you that/who lost a watch yesterday What great progress it was that you made.

强调句可以是一个从句 , 被强调的部分也可以是从句 .

I was told that it was because he hadn't received the invitation that he didn't come

It was there, the police believe,——she was able to activate the recorder she kept in her bag.

A. that B.until C. which D. when

见某些形容词要虚拟

Urgent, necessary, important, possible, essential, incredible, natural, ridiculous, vital, imperative, crucial, critical, proper, compulsory, etc.

形容词带的从句 : It is important that every member (should) inform himself of these rules.

主语从句 : It is decided that the meeting (should) be postponed.

宾语从句 : He insisted that his daughter (should) come.

表语从句 : The doctor's advice is that the patient (should) be kept quiet.

同位语从句 : He gave order that the guests (should) be hospitably entertained.

考题 : They demanded that the right to vote——(give) to every adult person. [(should) be given]

For a child to give up less mature idea for a more sophisticate one, it requires that the child ____ psychologically ready for the new idea.

A.is B.be C.were D.would be

第一类型虚拟语气 B

见某些形容词要虚拟

Urgent, necessary, important, possible, essential, incredible, natural, ridiculous, vital, imperative, crucial, critical, proper, compulsory, etc.

形容词带的从句 : It is important that every member (should) inform himself of these rules.

主语从句 : It is decided that the meeting (should) be postponed.

宾语从句 : He insisted that his daughter (should) come.

表语从句 : The doctor's advice is that the patient (should) be kept quiet.

同位语从句 : He gave order that the guests (should) be hospitably entertained.

考题 : They demanded that the right to vote——(give) to every adult person. [(should) be given]

For a child to give up less mature idea for a more sophisticate one, it requires that the child ____ psychologically ready for the new idea.

A.is B.be C.were D.would be

第二类型 : if 的非真实条件句 ( 可能性小或没有可能 )

注意 : if 可以引导真实条件句 , 多是条件状语从句 .

第二类型虚拟语气 ( 时态到推的概念 )

第二类型虚拟语气举例省略 if 的倒装

were, had , should.

If the doctor had been available, the child would have been saved.

Had the doctor been available, the child would have been saved.

考题 :

_____for your help, I would not have overcome the psychological pressures and tensions.

A. Had it not been B. not been C. Without being D. not having been

特殊虚拟

Even if 形式上与 if 相同

Wish 形式上大体与 if 从句相同

从句谓语与 Wish 同时 Wish+ 主语 +V.ed/were

I wish I were as young as you.

从句谓语发生 Wish 之前 多用 Wish+ 主语 +had done(been)

I wish that he had not made so much trouble.

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发表于 2013-9-5 16:02:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复 1# walswawxq 的帖子

很细致 很全面

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发表于 2013-9-19 16:53:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复 1# walswawxq 的帖子

It is not easy to remember all these words.

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发表于 2013-9-26 20:55:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复 1# walswawxq 的帖子

多谢 多谢

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发表于 2013-9-29 14:53:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复 1# walswawxq 的帖子

辛苦楼主了

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发表于 2013-10-2 20:28:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复 1# walswawxq 的帖子

挺好的啊

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发表于 2013-10-5 16:54:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复 1# walswawxq 的帖子

That the sun moves around the earth is the truth

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发表于 2013-10-10 19:40:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复 1# walswawxq 的帖子

全部记下了

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发表于 2013-10-16 16:31:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复 1# walswawxq 的帖子

意思 意思了

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发表于 2013-10-19 21:51:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复 1# walswawxq 的帖子

谢谢热心楼主
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