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  Text A Fallacies about Food


  1. fallacy n. 谬误;谬论;错误的推理或信念

  That the earth is flat used to be a popular fallacy.(地球是扁平的这一谬误曾一度很流行。)

  Needless to say, this statement is based on fallacy.(不用说,这是一个基于谬误推理的陈述。)

  2. quality n. 质量;品质,特性 adj. 优质的,高级的

  He is a man of many good qualities.(他具有许多优秀品质。)

  The quality of your products is superior to that of ours.(你们的产品质量比我们的好。)

  You have no reason to deprive me of the right to a quality education.


  qualify v. 使合适,使胜任

  I am not very sure if he is qualified for the job.(我不很肯定他是否胜任这份工作。)

  His skills qualify him for the job.(他的技艺使他有资格担任这一工作。)

  qualified adj. 有资格的;称职的

  He is trying hard to make himself a qualified teacher.(他在努力使自己成为一个称职的教师。)

  3. savage adj. 野蛮的,未开化的;凶猛的,残酷的 n.野蛮人,粗野的人

  Most of the time elephants are tame but they can be very savage.


  No one can put up with his savage manners.(谁也忍受不了他的粗暴态度。)

  4. tribe n. 种族,部落;(动植物)族,类

  This attitude still remains in some primitive tribes.(这种观念在一些原始部落中依然存在。)

  5. bravery n. 勇敢,大胆 brave adj. 勇敢的  v.冒(危险等);敢于做(某事)

  He made a brave attempt to prevent the group fighting.(他勇敢地试图阻止群殴。)

  They braved all the dangers and difficulties in completing their work.


  6. eager adj. 热切的,渴望的

  be eager to do sth. 渴望做某事

  be eager for/about sth. 渴求某事

  eager beaver 做事异常卖力的人;雄心勃勃的人

  The teacher found all the students were eager to express their opinions.


  I am eager for the performance to begin.(我热切地等待着演出的开始。)

  7. civilized adj. 文明的,开化的

  civilization n. 文明,文化

  8. root n. 根;根本,根源; v. (使)生根,(使)扎根

  She flushed to the root of her hair.(她羞得满脸通红。)

  He sat there rooted like a statue.(他像一尊雕塑一样一动不动地坐在那儿。)

  9. magic n. 魔法,魔力;魔术

  magical adj. 有魔力的;神秘的

  magician n. 魔术师;巫师

  The prince was turned by magic into a beast.(王子被魔法变成了一只野兽。)

  The magic of music is beyond words.(音乐的魅力无法用言语形容。)

  He used to believe that the old lady had magical powers.(他曾以为那个老太太有魔力。


  10. poisonous adj. 有毒的

  poison n.& v. 毒药;中毒,毒死;破坏

  11. overseas adv. 在海外,在国外  adj. 海外的,国外的

  He said he would travel overseas if he had a long holiday.(他说如果有长假,他就去国外旅游。)

  There is a vast overseas market for our goods.(我们的产品有广阔的海外市场。)

  12. widespread adj. 分布广的,普遍的

  Pollution problem is now attracting widespread attention.(污染问题正引起广泛关注。)

  13. digestive adj. 消化的,有消化力的

  digest v. 消化;领会

  digestion n. 消化;领悟

  indigestible adj. 难理解的;难消化的

  It will be very helpful for you to digest the important points in the book.


  14. foundation n. 根据;基金会;基地

  The early training gave her a very firm foundation.(早期的训练给她打下了坚实的基础。)

  In fact the rumor is without foundation.(事实上,这个谣传没有根据。)

  15. belief n. 相信;信念

  believe v. 相信;认为

  It is his belief that he will succeed sooner or later.(他相信他迟早会成功。)

  What he told me just now is really beyond my belief.(他刚才对我说的话令我难以置信。)

  16. combination n. 结合,联合;化合物

  combine v. 结合,联合

  The football players showed good combination.(足球队员们配合默契。)

  It will do us a lot of good if we can combine theory with practice.


  17.chiefly adv. 主要地

  chief n. 首领;长官  adj. 主要的

  I think this will become the chief concern of the world today.


  the editor in chief 总编     the chief engineer 总工程师

  chief executive 最高行政长官  chief justice 首席法官

  chief of staff 参谋长      chief of state 国家元首

  18. contain v. 包含;容纳;克制

  This mini-bus can contain 18 passengers.(这辆面包车可乘坐18人。)

  How much water can this water tank contain?(这只水箱能装多少水?)

  He cannot contain himself for the joy.(他高兴得不能自制。)


  affixation 词缀法

  1.名词后缀 -ity quality

  2.名词后缀 -ation;-ion; combination, civilization, foundation, digestion

  3.名词后缀 -ture mixture

  4.形容词后缀 -ous poisonous

  5.形容词后缀 -ible indigestible

  6.形容词后缀 -ful helpful, powerful

  7.副词前缀 over- overseas

  compounding 合词法

  复合形容词 widespread; man-eating;




  1. Many primitive people believed that by eating an animal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.

  本句中that 引导的是一个宾语从句。宾语从句在前几个单元中我们已有了比较多的了解。掌握宾语从句并不困难。请看下面的句子:

  1) He says that friendship is very important to him.(他说友谊对他很重要。)

  2) Can you tell me where the bookstore is?(你能告诉我书店在哪儿吗?)

  3) I don't know whether the letter is overweight.(我不知道这封信是否超重。)

  by 后面跟动词的现在分词表示某人做了某件事,并通过这件事产生了某个结果。请看下面的句子:

  They made a living by selling newspapers.(他们通过卖报谋生。)

  2. They thought that eating deer would make them run as fast as the deer.

  本句中that同样是引导一个宾语从句。在宾语从句中,动名词短语eating deer做主语。

  make sb. do sth.意思是“使某人做某事”。make 后面的复合宾语中动词不定式符号to要省去,但是用被动语态时一定要用to,请看下面的句子:

  1) The boss made them work from morning till night.(老板使他们从早到晚地干活。)

  2) She was made to finish the book in two days (by her father)。(父亲让她两天把书看完。)

  3. Some savage tribes believed that eating enemies that had shown bravery in battle would make them brave.

  本句中的第一个that 引导的又是一个宾语从句,而后一个that 引导的是定语从句,修饰enemies

  本句中them brave 是make 的复合宾语,请看下面的句子:

  1) Don't wait for him. He will make us late.(别等他了,他会使我们迟到的。)

  2) He was afraid that the story would make things worse.(他担心那个故事会使事情更糟。)

  3) I didn't know that the news had been made public.(我不知道这个消息已经公开了。)

  4. It was once thought …

  Eggs were thought to make the voice pretty.

  Tomatoes were believed to have magical powers

  They were called love apples and were supposed to make people who ate them fall in love.


  suppose 是一个常用词,请注意掌握。

  1) I suppose it was reasonable for him to want his money back.(我看他想要回他的钱是合理的。)

  2) I am not supposed to talk to you about this.(我不能和你谈这个。)

  3) Suppose / Supposing something should go wrong, what would you do?(如果有了什么差错,你怎么办?)

  5. How surprised the people who thought tomatoes poisonous would be if they could know that millions of pounds of tomatoes were supplied to soldiers overseas during WWII.

  “how surprised the people would be”是主句,这是一个感叹句;who 引导的定语从句修饰people;if 引导的是条件状语从句。

  感叹句通常用what 或how 引起。what 用来修饰一个名词,how 修饰一个形容词,副词或动词。

  本句中that 引导的是一个表语从句

  7. Washing food down with water as a substitute for chewing is not a good idea.

  substitute for 是一个常用词组,意思是“代替,代用品”;substitute也可以做动词用,意思是“替代”。请看例句:

  1) Don't you think it a good idea to use plastic as a substitute for wood?


  2) Daydreaming cannot substitute for hard work.(白日梦不能取代辛勤的努力。)

  8. Many people think of bread as a carbohydrate food.

  think of … as是一个习惯用法,意思是“把…看作是…”,“认为…是…”。请看下面的句子:

  1) People think of him as a hero.(人们把他看作英雄。)

  与think of …as 意思相近的习惯用法还有regard …as;consider…as;look upon…as;view…as;see …as 等等。


  1. be eager to         2. be supposed to

  3. fall in love          4. grow up

  5. be supplied to        6. substitute for

  7. have sth. to do with      8. at the meal

  9. as a matter of fact       10. think of …as…

  11. in the same way



  1. Many people believe that by eating an animal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.

  2. They thought eating deer would make them run as fast as the deer.

  3. Some savage tribes believe that eating enemies that had shown bravery in battle would make them brave


  1. One idea was that fish is the best brain food.

  2. Another idea is that you should not drink water with meals.

  3. The reason was that the acid in the orange juice would make the milk curdle and become indigestible.

  4. A similar wrong idea is that fish and ice cream …for a poisonous combination.

  5. Still another idea is that proteins and carbohydrates should never be eaten at the same meal.


  1. How surprised that people…would be …。


  1. They thought eating deer would make them run as fast as deer.

  2. Man-eating may have started because people were eager to become as strong and brave as their enemies.

  3. One such idea is that fish is the best brain food.

  4. Fish is good brain food just as it is good muscle food and skin and bone food.

  5. But no one has been able to prove that fish is any better for the brain than many other kinds of food.

  6. It is just as foolish to say that one should never eat meat and potatoes together as it is to say that one should never eat bread or drink milk.

  Text B Do Animals Think?


  1. a great deal

  We learned a great deal from her.

  2. be like

  Look at the little boy, he is so much like his father.

  3. have time for

  Don't worry, we will have enough time for discussion.

  4. engage in

  It is not appropriate for a former president to engage in commerce.

  5. take care of

  She took care of her little brother while mother was away.

  6. in some / many respects

  in one / this respect

  He is different from the people around him in many respects.

  We are lagging behind at least in one respect.

  7. except

  8. connect with

  Good health is connected with diet.

  9. make improvement in

  10. by instinct

  Birds build their nests by instinct.

  11. speak of

  Professor Blake always speaks highly of his assistant.

  Did he speak of the serious earthquake that struck Taiwan last week?

  12. let out

  13. as if

  He looked at me as if I were mad.

  14. have one's wits about one〔机警,保持警觉〕

  In this part of the city you have to have your wits about you all the time.

  He felt it unnecessary to have his wits about him on such a friendly occasion.

  15. a variety of

  Don't bother him, he has a variety of duties to perform.

  The college library has a wide variety of books.

  16. difference between

  Will you please tell me the difference between the two countries?
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